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Saturday, December 5, 2020 | History

2 edition of Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems found in the catalog.

Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems

Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems

  • 149 Want to read
  • 37 Currently reading

Published by Butterworth-Heinemann in Amsterdam, Boston .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Demyelination.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    Statement[edited by] Fernando Dangond.
    ContributionsDangond, Fernando.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsRC366 .D55 2002
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxvi, 384 p., [15] p. of plates :
    Number of Pages384
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL22481512M
    ISBN 100750672536


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Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems Download PDF EPUB FB2

Disorders of Myelin in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems: Medicine & Health Science Books @ ISBN: $ Scope: This is a multi-authored compilation of current clinical and basic science information pertaining to disorders of myelin in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Each of the 18 chapters contributes to a cohesive and concise review of the genetics, immune mechanisms, pathology.

The dry mass of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin is characterized by a high lipid and low protein content compared with other biological membranes where the proportion of proteins exceeds that of lipids. This book presents the latest exciting advances in understanding of the structure and function of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems under normal and pathological conditions.

Readers will find state of the art information from the perspectives of both basic neuroscience and clinical neurology and neuropathology.

Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems. [Fernando Dangond;] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search Book, Internet Resource: All Authors / Contributors: Fernando Dangond.

Find more information about: ISBN: The diseases of myelin, which are particularly well served by this two-volume book, include multiple sclerosis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, as well as a host of hereditary disorders of central and peripheral myelin.

The book is organized into sections that address the functional biology of myelin and glial cells, the 5/5(1). Abstract. The chapter begins with a discussion of common major clinical features and mechanisms of damage to myelin.

Myelin is produced in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) by Schwann cells and in the central nervous Disorders of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems book (CNS) by : Larry E.

Davis, Sarah Pirio Richardson. Concurrent dysmyelination in the central nervous system and peripheral nerve demyelination are common in metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe disease and adrenoleukodystrophy.

A Norwegian family with adult-onset demyelinating disease affecting both the peripheral and central nervous system has recently been by: 2. Diseases Affecting Both the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems David E Pleasure.

Correspondence to David E. Pleasure, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Room A Abramson Research Building, Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Author: David E Pleasure. Other Autoimmune Disorders of the Myelin Sheath. Guillain-Barre syndrome, or GBS, occurs when the body's immune system attacks the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system -- the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord 4.

GBS usually begins with muscle weakness in the legs that spreads up the body. The muscles of breathing may become involved. Myelin also contains proteins that can be targeted by the immune system.

Myelin coats the nerves of both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system; the destruction of the myelin in the central nervous system is what triggers many of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).Author: Fernando Dangond, MD.

The myelin sheath that wraps the neuronal axons in both the central and the peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS) is composed of lipids and proteins. The proteinic part is the one that may be targeted by the immune system (by both its cellular and humoral arms: T and B cells and antibodies) in various neuroimmune conditions of the CNS and PNS.

The Central Nervous System. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord and is covered with three layers of protective coverings called meninges (from the Greek word for membrane).

The outermost layer is the dura mater with the primary function for this thick layer is to protect the brain and spinal cord. Myelin sheaths cover many nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system, accelerating axonal transmission of neural impulses. Demyelination interrupts nerve transmission.

Myelin is a lipid-rich (fatty) substance that surrounds nerve cell axons (the nervous system's "wires") to insulate them and increase the rate at which electrical impulses (called action potentials) are passed along the axon.

The myelinated axon can be likened to an electrical wire (the axon) with insulating material (myelin) around it. However, unlike the plastic covering on an electrical FMA: Demyelinating Disorders of the Central Nervous System in Childhood - edited by Dorothée Chabas March Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Myelin basic protein as an encephalitogen in encephalomyelitis and polyneuritis following rabies vaccination. Overview of the Peripheral Nervous System By. Michael Rubin, MDCM, Weill Cornell Medical College The peripheral nervous system refers to the parts of the nervous system that are outside the central nervous system, that is, those outside the brain and spinal cord.

If a peripheral nerve disorder reduces lifespan, the person, family. HCV-Related Central and Peripheral Nervous System Demyelinating Send Orders for Reprints to [email protected] Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets,13, B) The lesions may occur in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, or pons, especially at the neuromuscular junctions.

C) This is a group of autosomal dominant disorders of the nervous system in the myelin sheath. D) A recessive disorder originating from the arachnoidal cap cells in the dura mater.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) (Calabresi, ). It is the most common cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability in young adults and it can result in. Hereditary predisposition, infections, and metabolic disorders cause the damage to the myelin sheath of the cells of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

The process is accompanied by the development of serious diseases, many of which are fatal. Nervous System Diseases. Central, Peripheral and Autonomic nervous systems are at risk to different pathological conditions.

Nervous system can be impaired as a result of: Head injury; Bacterial and/or viral Contaminations; Degeneration; Physical defects; Growths; Circulation disturbance; Autoimmune diseases; Pathological medical conditions of the nervous system. Myelin is the name of the insulating sheath that surrounds many nerve fibers in the body.

Myelin exists around neuron components of the central nervous system, as well as in the peripheral nervous system. Myelination is the process by which this protective covering is created and.

Autoimmune disorders of the nervous system can attack the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, or the peripheral nervous system, consisting of nerves that connect the CNS with the limbs and organs 1.

Some autoimmune disorders attack only the nervous system while others affect multiple organ systems 1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In this disorder, your immune system attacks the myelin sheath or the cells that produce and maintain it.

This causes inflammation and injury to the sheath and ultimately to the nerve fibers that it surrounds. Chapter Nursing Care of Patients With Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Answer Section. MULTIPLE CHOICE.

ANS: B In multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath begins to break down or degenerates as a result of the activation of the bodys immune system. The nerve becomes inflamed and edematous. Nerve impulses to the muscles slow down. CIDP, like the other inflammatory disorders that are similar to it, affects your peripheral nervous system.

This includes the nerves outside your brain and spinal : Kimberly Holland. (-phasia, speech) Speech impairment caused by a lesion in the brain; characterized by lack of coordination and failure to arrange words properly. (my/o, muscle) Preparation, study, and interpretation of an electromyogram, a graphic record of the contraction of a muscle as a result of electrical stimulation.

The myelin sheath is found surrounding axons of the both the central and peripheral nervous system. Axons may be myelinated or unmyelinated. In myelinated axons the sheath is arranged with small gaps known as the Nodes of Ranvier, this is where the action potentials are generated as this is where the majority of the axon’s ion channels are located/5.

Disorders of the Nervous System. There are several different types of problems that can affect the nervous system. Vascular disorders involve problems with blood flow.

For example, a stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow to part of the brain. Brain cells die. The peripheral nervous system also regenerates more than the central nervous system, due in part to its glial cells -- a characteristic that, if.

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This damage impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves.

In turn, the reduction in conduction ability causes deficiency in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are lty: Neurology.

• Autoimmune disorders affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system.) • 4. Autoimmune nervous system disorders include: 5. GUILLAIN - BARRE SYNDROME (GB SYNDROME) 6. Guillain-Barré syndrome(Polyradiculoeuritis) •Guillain-Barré syndrome is an autoimmune attack of the peripheral nerve myelin.

Diseases affecting central nervous system (CNS) myelin can be classified on the basis of whether a primary biochemical abnormality of myelin exists (dysmyelinating) or whether some other process damages the myelin or oligodendroglial cell (demyelinating).Demyelinating diseases in which normal myelin is disrupted include autoimmune, infectious, toxic and metabolic, and vascular processes ().

Neuroregeneration differs between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS) by the functional mechanisms and especially by the extent and speed. When an axon is damaged, the distal segment undergoes Wallerian degeneration, losing its myelin sheath.

Title:HCV-Related Central and Peripheral Nervous System Demyelinating Disorders VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 5 Author(s):Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari and Salvatore Monaco Affiliation:Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B.

Rossi, L.A. Sc Verona, Italy. Keywords:Anti-aquaporin-4, anti-MAG neuropathy, demyelination, HCV. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through.

In adults, the myelin sheath can be destroyed by stroke, inflammation, immune disorders, metabolic disorders, and nutritional deficiencies (such as a lack of vitamin B12). Myelin is the lipid membrane or sheath that covers and protects the axons, which are the slim projections that allow neurons to communicate with other cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

The myelin membrane protects the axon like a conduit, allowing electrical information to flow safely and quickly from the neuron to the other. Overview of the human anatomy of the peripheral nervous system Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Neurological disorders can occur anywhere in the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, or the peripheral nervous system.

Social Security approves disability benefits for serious cases of epilepsy, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, ALS, and other nerve-based diseases.4/5(2). The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. It gathers information from all over the body and coordinates activity.

.Disorders causing autonomic insufficiency or failure can originate in the peripheral or central nervous system and may be primary or secondary to other disorders. The most common causes of autonomic insufficiency are. Peripheral neuropathies.

Parkinson disease. Other causes include. Autoimmune autonomic neuropathy. Multiple system atrophy.